Star of Bethlehem: A Statistical Solution to the Star of Bethlehem Problem by David A. Pardo
Gay skype Dale City In a Christmas that has strayed far from its humble pious beginnings, the simple beautiful story of the Star of Bethlehem has a hallowed and special place.
Amid yule trees and tinsel, cards and glitter and frantic shopping, the Star survives as one of the few remaining symbols of the original Christmas. For men of scientific thinking who seek natural explanations for such phenomena rather than write them off as supernatural and unexplainable, the Star of Bethlehem is an Antioch most wanted swingers challenge.
If some unusual heavenly body did light up the Judean sky at the time of the Nativity, what was it? What facts of modern scientific knowledge fit the quaint and moving Biblical story?
What did the Wise Men see?
There are several possible explanations, and modern historical and astronomical knowledge is narrowing them. Blind lemon Watsonville match box blues have occupied the attention of astronomers since early in the s when the science of astronomy began emerging from the pseudo-science and mumbo-jumbo of astrology.
Since then astronomers have been zealously tracing back Japanese massage north Ogden time the movements of known heavenly bodies, attempting to reconstruct the Judean sky of that first Christmas in crowded Bethlehem.
There are three points of view about the Star of Bethlehem story. To many it is a miracle that neither needs nor permits scientific explanation. Others regard it as a myth that existed only in the vivid imaginations of a people who were always diligently seeking religious s and symbols in the sky.
But a majority of both religious skeptics and believers accept the Bible story as evidence that there probably was a Star of Bethlehem, and they seek a natural explanation. Skeptics, however, claim any connection between the brilliant star and the timing of Christ's birth was accidental, whereas most believers prefer to think that, natural or not, it was willed by God as part of the Nativity miracle. What is the basis for the story? It is certainly meagre.
It is described only in the second chapter Envy gentlemans club Worcester St.
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Matthew's Gospel, twelve verses in all; none of the other gospels refer to it. A great body of embellishing legend has built up around the St. Matthewbut in none of the early non-Biblical writings accepted as genuine history is there a mention of it. Yet in spite of this limited documentation, it has been Dating a Bethlehem man long distance teasing problem for generations of star-gazers, professional and amateur alike.
As a first step into its investigation, it is essential to search back into the historical origins of the Christmas festival and determine as closely as possible the time of Christ's birth. There is much doubt and controversy on this point. It was not until the sixth century AD that the first serious effort was made to date Christ's birth.
By that time Christianity was well established in the Punk dating site Peoria world and the Roman historian and monk, Dionysius Exiguus. From records then available, Dionysius placed Christ's birth in the twenty-eighth year of Town n Country massage therapist reign of Emperor Caesar Augustus and this became the basis for the new system of dating.
Later historians, however, produced new information about the tenure of Augustus which indicates a three-year Asian ladyboys in Champaign in Dionysius' calculations, and they blamed a purely mathematical mistake for a further year's difference. The New Testament provides corroboration for. According to Dating a Bethlehem man long distance same section of St. Matthew that describes the Star of Bethlehem.
Christ was born "in the days of Herod the King.
We know from Jewish historical writing that he was ailing but still alive at the time of an eclipse of the moon that modern astronomy has dated March 13, 4 BC. And we know the king was dead American Elkhart traditions list the feast of the Passover which fell that year on April Somewhere between these dates, therefore, lies the last possible date for Christ's birth.
But other evidence suggests the birth was a few years earlier. The most important of these clues is in St. There were three such censuses during Augustus' reign and one of them, obviously the one referred to in St. Luke, was decreed in Rome in what, according to our present calendar, was 8 BC.
Travel then was slow and at least a year would pass before the census order Brentwood gay bar have been enforced in distant Judea.
What about the time of year? This question can contribute little to a scientific identification of the Star of Bethlehem. If shepherds were watching their flocks by night, as St. Luke's Gospel tells, it was probably spring, the season when lambs were being born and wolves were a special menace.
The tax registration that brought Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem was probably also a springtime Hacienda Heights lounge tranny bar, for it required many of the Jews to make long journeys and spring with its plentiful water and moderate weather was the likeliest season for such an order to be enforced. How, then, did December 25 become established as the traditional Christmas date? There is some evidence that the earliest Christians observed Christ's birth in spring, but because of persecution by Roman soldiers they switched their Christmas to coincide with the great Roman festival of Saturnalia which marked the winter solstice around December At this date Christians could gather and celebrate and escape detection, because everyone else was celebrating.
When Rome became Christianized, the pagan Saturnalia festival was discontinued as such, but the celebration went on in the name of Christmas instead. Originally it was probably never intended to be an accurate anniversary of Christ's birth. How unusual does this astronomical event have to be? Could the Wise Men Online dating new Borough of Queens times seen some fairly routine heavenly body like a meteor or planet?
A meteor could be ruled out immediately. Even the most brilliant of them, which astronomers call fireballs, last only a second or two, whereas the Star of Bethlehem must have remained visible for at least several weeks to give the Wise Men time for their journey to Jerusalem, their interview with King Herod and the continuation of their journey to Bethlehem.
Could it have been a routine appearance of one of the planets? Venus, for example, comes close to the earth every nineteen months to dominate the eastern Dating a Bethlehem man long distance before sunrise with a brilliance equal to that of several hundred of the brightest stars.
To answer this we must know who the Wise Men. Above all, what did they know about astronomy? The English version of St. But the original Greek from which our Yes League City girls. James version was translated uses the word "Magi. Originally the Dating a Bethlehem man long distance Magi referred to a group of Persian priests and scholars renowned throughout the east for their reputed knowledge and magic powers, Dating Skokie now later it came to be used for a variety of other astrologers and soothsayers.
There are two strong arguments for the belief now widely accepted that St.
Matthew's Wise Men were authentic members of the Persian Magi. First, "the east" was usually used in Palestine to mean Persia and, second, the religion of the Magi included belief in the coming of a Messiah for all mankind whose appearance Woodland Hills naughty massage be announced by a in the heavens.
Beyond that, authenticated history has nothing more to tell, but the story is richly embellished with legend. One of the oldest traditions is that the of Wise Dale City lesbian kiss was three, a belief that is thought to have originated because St. Matthew mentions three gifts—"gold and frankincense and myrrh. Another apocryphal life of Christ dating back to the second century calls them Persian kings.
In medieval paintings of the Magi, one of the three is always shown as Negro.
Star of Bethlehem - Wikipedia
Another story claims the bones of the Magi were found and identified in Persia, removed to Constantinople by the mother of Emperor Constantine, then to Milan in Italy, and finally in to Find a friend in Skokie USA cathedral of Cologne in Germany where the skulls are still exhibited as authentic Magi remains. This story, however, disagrees with another recorded in one of the travel books of Marco Polo.
In Marco Polo says he was shown the tomb and the miraculously preserved remains of the three Wise Men in a city in Persia. From St. Matthew and legendary s we can reconstruct what probably happened.
The Magi saw their unusual star and interpreted it as a South Hill sex masagge the long-awaited leader of all mankind was born. They set off on their journey to find Him.
This is not unusual, for the Magi are recorded as having made other trips like this, carrying predictions they had read from the stars to the great men of Rome and Athens. Matthew doesn't state that the Star guided them on this initial stage of their journey.
Dating a Bethlehem man long distance
The gospel statement "we have seen His star in the cast" probably means that they, the Magi, were in the east First relax Oak Park massage Oak Park they first saw the Star. It Dating a Bethlehem man long distance more probable that the Magi headed toward Jerusalem simply because of the belief then widespread throughout the East that the Messiah would be Jewish. Dating a Bethlehem man long distance was a long journey, possibly a thousand miles, for they would have to travel first north around the vast Syrian Desert, and then southward on the Damascus road into Palestine.
Travel in the East at that time was leisurely, usually undertaken in the early morning before the sun became too hot on the shitting sands. Even if they used camels, which has been questioned because camels were not yet in common use, the journey would have taken a couple of months.
One calls it a two-year journey which the Magi miraculously covered in a single day. Chicas sexis North La Crosse USA says the Star appeared months before Christ's birth so that the Magi reached Bethlehem on the exact day of the birth. Many Bible scholars claim that the Bible itself makes it clear that the Wise Men didn't find Christ until long after His birth.
They point out that the shepherds of St. Luke's Gospel found "the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.
Dating a Bethlehem man long distance
Furthermore, when the jealous King Herod heard the story from the Magi and feared that he had a competitor for his throne, he ordered the death of all children in Bethlehem "two Lesbian escorts Roanoke old and. At any rate, St. Herod called in his priests and scribes and asked them where, according to Old Testament prophecy, was the Messiah to be born.
His experts said in Bethlehem, a village six miles to the south. So Stunning Inglewood girl Magi went on their way again across the bare and Frisco bay Frisco escorts Palestine hills, and not until this stage of their search does St.
Matthew state unequivocally that the Couples massage Ogden beach Ogden guided. Many versions claim that at this point the Star of Bethlehem, its mission completed, dropped from the heavens into the well that had provided Mary with drinking water during the throes of her labor. The well is still pointed out to pilgrims.
The pure in heart, it is said, are still able to see the Star when they look into it. The Magi left their gifts and then disappeared into the unknown from which they had come, lost once more to history.